Tropical Deciduous Forest cleared for cattle

TDF and thorn-scrub are often cleared to make way for planting of non-native buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare) for cattle forage. Calumnar cactus are often left, but do not always survive. Generally there will not be recovery to TDF. Sometimes a monoculture of Acacia cochliacantha can eventually invade cleared areas if it can outcompete beffelgrass and the area isn't burned or re-cleared.

Tropical Deciduous Forest cleared for cattle (©AZ/Sonora Desert Museum)
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